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List the FOUR mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori causes tissue damage?

  1. Gastric Mucosal Defence is broken by urease, protease, catalase and phospholipase.
  2. release of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, 6, 8, TNF-α)
  3. Epithelial injeujiu died by CagA and VacA
  4. Adhesion:- the surface of cells
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