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Largest Cell in the Human Body

The largest cell in the Human Body is Ovum. The ovum must not be confused with the longest cell in the human body. It is pertinent to note that the ‘ovum’ is the largest cell in the Human body and not the longest cell, as the longest cell in the human body is the nerve cell. Hence, it is important to differentiate between the two. The ovum is vital for the functioning of the female reproductive system and also plays a key role in the fertilization process.

Read More:- Smallest Cell in the Human Body

Understanding the Ovum Largest Cell in the Human Body

The ovum is usually released from the ovaries, which is the female reproductive organ. Ovum is the plural form of the Latin word ova. The Latin meaning of the word ‘ovum’ is an egg. The haploid female reproductive gamete is called the ovum. Although the ovum is regarded as the largest cell in the human body, it is not as big as it seems to be. Only with respect to cells, it is the largest, otherwise, it can be as tiny as a seed.

Describe the Ovum, Largest Cell in the Human Body

As explicitly mentioned before, the largest cell in the Human body is a female’s ovum. The ovum is the egg cell. The ovum is a reproductive cell in the Human Body. It is considered to be is around twenty times bigger than the sperm which is the smallest cell in the human body. Both, the largest cell in the human body as well as the smallest cell in the human body are reproductive cells of the human body. The reproductive cell, which is the human egg, also known as the ovum, has a diameter of about 0.12 mm. It is quite possible to view it without the help of a microscope.

Function of the Ovum Largest cell

The egg cell, also known as the ovum, plays a very vital role in reproduction as it is a reproductive cell. It takes on the function of carrying the set of chromosomes that is given by the female gamete. This aids in developing the right environment for fertilization. Fertilization is only possible with the presence of sperm. The nutrients for the growing embryo are also provided by the largest cell into the uterus, then the placenta takes charge. The female’s genetic material is contained in the central nucleus of the largest cell in the human body. The characteristics inherited by the child are determined with the help of such genetic material of the female and the sperm cell. Until the growing embryo sinks to the uterus and the placenta takes charge, the ova keep providing the nutrients that are necessary for the growing embryo.

Structure of the Ovum

The ovum present in the human body has a large amount of cytoplasm and is microlecithal. The cytoplasm can differ as per egg cortex and inner, lаrger аnd ораque endорlаsm оr оорlаsm or оuter, smaller and trаnsраrent exорlаsm. The ovum’s nucleus is large and is bloated with nucleoplasm. It is referred to as a germinal vesicle. The sides of the ovum are known as animal poles and vegetal poles. Where the largest cell of the human body is not fertilized, it does not undergo any development. Consequently, it is discharged from the uterus. Upon fertilization, it stays intact in the uterus and develops into a whole new human being.

Breaking down the Anatomy of the Ovum

There are various parts of an ovum. The heart of the egg cell is the nucleus, comprising of genetic material and the genes are also located here. The egg comprises 23 chromosomes. The cytoplasm of the largest cell in the human body is known as the ooplasm. The ooplasm comprises the germinal vesicle which is a large nucleus. The cytoplasm is what holds the internal structures of the cell. Three coverings of the ovum are vitelline membrane, zona pellucida and corona radiata. The vitelline membrane is the inner thin membrane. The zona pellucida is middle thick and is the outer membrane. It aids sperm in entering the egg. While corona radiata is a thick coat of follicular cells, it is attached to zona pellucida. It helps supply important proteins to the cell. The ovum is one of the largest cells in the human body, is even visible to the naked eye. It is a spherical cell. Consisting of a nucleus, the cellular membrane and the cytoplasm. Its nucleus consists of chromosomes, while the cytoplasm is known to keep nutrients and food.


On the fourteenth day of the menstrual cycle, the largest cell in the human body, that is the ovum gets released. It is prepared for fertilization in a matter of two days time. In a single ejaculation, a male releases three hundred to five hundred million sperms. Nonetheless, not every single sperm makes it to the Ovum. The sperms secrete the hyaluronidase enzyme. This dissolves the ovum coat partly, which is otherwise intact due to the presence of hyaluronic acid. The neck, as well as the head of sperm, enters the ovum. After the fertilization takes place, the ovum covers all over with some coat which helps in preventing the entry of the other sperms.

Importance of Ovum

Since the largest cell in the human body is the egg cell, that is, the ovum, it plays a key role in the reproduction process in human beings. This egg cell can even be donated. Therefore, healthy females can donate their eggs to women (female recipients) who are struggling to conceive a child. In this process, the egg cell of the egg donor is fertilized with sperm which leads to the development of embryos. The fresh embryos are then placed inside the female recipient.

Conclusion, Largest Cell in the Human Body

The largest cell of the human body, that is, the ovum is very crucial in the reproductive process, Without the presence of such an egg cell, it would be very difficult to procreate naturally. Nevertheless, with the advancement in science, new ways of procreation and reproduction have come to light. Where one of the ways of reproduction can be completed with the help of a donated egg cell.

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1 Comment

  1. […] cell measures about 4 μm in length, just a little bit smaller than a red blood cell (RBCs). The largest cell in the human body is Egg cells (ovum). They are 20 times larger than the sperm cells and measure about 0.1 […]

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